Environmental Microbiology and Cultural Heritage

The Research Group Environmental Microbiology and cultural heritage is devoted to environmental microbiology of subterranean, terrestrial and aquatic environments, with special attention to the biodegradation of materials and pollutants, biodeterioration and conservation of Cultural Heritage, the study of the biogeochemical cycle of the elements, geochemistry and environmental chemistry.

In the field of Cultural Heritage Conservation, the group was promoter and coordinator of several initiatives as CSIC Thematic Network on Historical and Cultural heritage (from 2001 to 2011), and the latter TechnoHertage Network, from 2011 and 2015. Nowadays the Research Group, besides its continuity as active group in TechnoHeritage, is a member of CSIC´s Interdisciplinary Thematic Platform Open Heritage: Research and Society (PTI-PAIS).
These last years, the Research Group coordinates the transnational project Probioma, dedicated to the search for bioactive substances produced by microorganisms isolated in subterranean environments (caves and mines) fron Spain and Portugal, funded by EU Program Interreg VA Spain-Portugal (POCTEP) 2014-2020.


The objectives of the Research Group lay in the framework of environmental microbiology in its widest sense (wáter, soil and subsoil), and particularly subterranean environments, paying special attention to the biodiversity and ecology in caves, mines, tunnels, catacombs and tombs. Among these studies, the taxonomy of bacteria and fungi, the description of new microbial genera and species, and their participation in the biogeochemical cycle of the elements are highlighted.

Additionally, we study archeological sites, monuments and Cultural assets, using modern, non-destructive and semi destructive analytical techniques, we work in the diagnosis of threats, as well as the proposal of recommendations for conservation.
Other research lines of the group are:
Environmental chemistry (atmosphere, water and soil)
Biogeochemistry of the elements cycle in nature
Biodeterioration of building materials and works of art, paper, textiles, woods, ceramics, etc.
Atmospheric pollution of urban environments and impact over monuments and building materials
Effects of Climate change on Cultural Heritage
Biodegradation and bioremediation of pollutants and biocides in soils and waters
Research and description of new pathogenic bacterial species in diverse ecosystems
Design of application methods and biocides for proactive prevention of biodeterioration
Assessment of biocides and cleaning methods in restauration works of Cultural Heritage

Members of the Research Group

Prof. Cesáreo Sáiz JiménezDr. Bernardo Hermosín CamposDra. Leonila Laiz TrobajoDra. Valme Jurado Lobo
Dr. Miguel Ángel Rogerio CandeleraDra. Irene Domínguez MoñinoDr. José Luís González PimentelIsabel Galocha Zapata


Publications (2015-2020)

Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Cuezva, S.; Alvarez-Gallego, M.; Garcia-Anton, E.; Pla, C.; Benavente, D.; Jurado, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Sanchez-Moral, S. 2015. Subterranean atmospheres may act as daily methane sinks. Nature Communications 6.

Cañaveras, J.C.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Elez, J.; Cuezva, S.; Jurado, V.; Miller, A.Z.; Rogerio-Candelera, M.A.; Benavente, D.; Hernandez-Marine, M.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Sanchez-Moral, S. 2015. The deterioration of Circular Mausoleum, Roman Necropolis of Carmona, Spain. Science of the Total Environment 518-519: 65 – 77.

Rogerio-Candelera, M.Á. 2015. Digital image analysis based study, recording, and protection of painted rock art. Some Iberian experiences. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage 2: 68 – 78.

Garcia-Guinea, J.; Furio, M.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Jurado, V.; Correcher, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2015. Composition and spectra of copper-carotenoid sediments from a pyrite mine stream in Spain. Spectrochimica Acta – Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 135: 203 – 210.

Riquelme, C.; Hathaway, J.J.M.; Dapkevicius, M.d.L.N.E.; Miller, A.Z.; Kooser, A.; Northup, D.E.; Jurado, V.; Fernandez, O.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Cheeptham, N. 2015. Actinobacterial diversity in volcanic caves and associated geomicrobiological interactions. Frontiers in Microbiology 6: 2016-05-30

A.Z. Miller; M.F.C Pereira; J.M. Calaforra; P. Forti; A. Dionísio; C. Saiz-Jimenez 2015. Ana Heva lava tube (Easter Island, Chile): Preliminary characterization of the internal layers of coralloid-type speleothems. Microscopy and Microanalysis 21: 68 – 69.

Mathilda L. Coutinho; Ana Z. Miller; Maria F. Macedo. 2015. Biodiversity and biodeterioration of architectural ceramic materials: an overview. Journal of Cultural Heritage 16: 759 – 777.

M. L. Coutinho; A. Z. Miller; P. M. Martin-Sanchez; Mirao; A. Gomez-Bolea; B. Machado-Moreira; L. Cerqueira-Alves; V. Jurado; C. Saiz-Jimenez; A. Lima; A. J. L. Phillips; F. Pina; M. F. Macedo 2016. A multiproxy approach to evaluate biocidal treatments on biodeteriorated majolica glazed tiles. Environmental Microbiology 18: 4794 – 4816.

Miller, A.Z.; De la Rosa, J.M.; Jiménez-Morillo, N.T.; Pereira, M.F.C.; González-Pérez, J.A.; Calaforra, J.M.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2016. Analytical pyrolysis and stable isotope analyses reveal past environmental changes in coralloid speleothems from Easter Island (Chile). Journal of chromatography A 1461: 144 – 152.

Díaz-Herraiz M; Laiz L; Jurado V; Miller A.Z; Gonzalez-Perez J.A; Santos J.L; Alonso E; Saiz-Jiménez C. 2016. Analytical pyrolysis evidences the presence of granaticins in the violet stains of a Roman tomb. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 117: 357 – 362.

Miguel Ángel Rogerio-Candelera. 2016. Digital image analysis-based strategies for quantitative monitoring of rock art sites. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 10: 864 – 870.

Coutinho, M.L.; Miller, A.Z.; Rogerio-Candelera, M.A.; Mirão, J.; Cerqueira Alves, L.; Veiga, J.P.; Águas, H.; Pereira, S.; Lyubchyk, A.; Macedo, M.F. 2016. An integrated approach for assessing the bioreceptivity of glazed tiles to phototrophic microorganisms. Biofouling 32: 243 – 259.

García-Jaramillo, M.; Redondo-Gómez, S.; Barcia-Piedras, J.M.; Aguilar, M.; Jurado, V.; Hermosín, M.C.; Cox, L. 2016. Dissipation and effects of tricyclazole on soil microbial communities and rice growth as affected by amendment with alperujo compost. Science of the Total Environment 550: 637 – 644

P. Cennamo; P. Caputo; C. Marzano; A. Z. Miller; C. Saiz-Jimenez; A. Moretti. 2016. Diversity of phototrophic components in biofilms from Piperno historical stoneworks. Plant Biosystems 150: 720 – 729.

Jacques M. Gilquin; Brigitte Riviere; Valme Jurado; Bernard Audouy; Jean-Baptiste Kouatche; Emmanuelle Bergeron; Delphine Mouniée; Thierry Molina; Philippe Faure; Cesáreo Saiz-Jimenez; Verónica Rodríguez. 2016. First Case of Actinomycetoma in France Due to a Novel Nocardia Species, Nocardia boironii sp. nov. mSphere 1: 1 – 8.

Dominguez-Moñino, I.; Jurado, V.; Hermosin, B.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2016. Paracoccus cavernae sp. nov., isolated from a show cave. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 66: 2265 – 2270.

Sasso, S.; Miller, A.Z.; Rogerio-Candelera, M.A.; Cubero, B.; Coutinho, M.L.; Scrano, L.; Bufo, S.A. 2016. Potential of natural biocides for biocontrolling phototrophic colonization on limestone. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 107: 102 – 110.

Riquelme, C.; Enes Dapkevicius, M.d.L.; Miller, A.Z.; Charlop-Powers, Z.; Brady, S.; Mason, C.; Cheeptham, N. 2017. Biotechnological potential of Actinobacteria from Canadian and Azorean volcanic caves. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 101: 843 – 857.

Dominguez-Moñino, I.; Diaz-Herraiz, M.; Jurado, V.; Laiz, L.; Miller, A.Z.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Santos, J.L.; Alonso, E. 2017. Nature and origin of the violet stains on the walls of a Roman tomb. Science of the Total Environment 598: 889 – 899.

De la Rosa, J.M.; Miller, A.Z.; Pozo-Antonio, J.S.; González-Pérez, J.A.; Jiménez-Morillo, N.T.; Dionisio, A. 2017. Assessing the effects of UVA photocatalysis on soot-coated TiO2-containing mortars. Science of the Total Environment 605-606: 147 – 157.

Moeller, R.; Raguse, M.; Leuko, S.; Berger, T.; Hellweg, C.E.; Fujimori, A.; Okayasu, R.; Horneck, G.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Yokobori, S.I.; Yamagishi, A.; Rettberg, P.; Verseux, C.; Baqué, M.; Cifariello, R… 2017. STARLIFE -An international campaign to study the role of galactic cosmic radiation in astrobiological model systems. Astrobiology 17: 101 – 109.

De La Rosa, J.M.; Martin-Sanchez, P.M.; Sanchez-Cortes, S.; Hermosin, B.; Knicker, H.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2017. Structure of melanins from the fungi Ochroconis lascauxensis and Ochroconis anomala contaminating rock art in the Lascaux Cave. Scientific Reports 7.

De La Torre, R.; Miller, A.Z.; Cubero, B.; Martín-Cerezo, M.L.; Raguse, M.; Meeßen, J. 2017. The effect of high-dose ionizing radiation on the astrobiological model lichen Circinaria gyrosa. Astrobiology 17: 145 – 153.

Leonardo García Sanjuán; Marta Díaz-Guardamino; David W. Wheatley; Juan-Pablo Vita Barra; José Antonio Lozano Rodríguez; Miguel Ángel Rogerio-Candelera; Ángel Justo Erbez; Dominic Barker; Kris Strutt;… 2017. The epigraphic stela of Montoro (Córdoba): the earliest monumental script in Iberia? Antiquity 91: 916 – 932.

Jiménez-Morillo, N.T.; Spangenberg, J.E.; Miller, A.Z.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L.M.; González-Vila, F.J.; González-Pérez, J.A. 2017. Wildfire effects on lipid composition and hydrophobicity of bulk soil and soil size fractions under Quercus suber cover (SW-Spain). Environmental Research 159: 394 – 405.

Belyagoubi, L.; Belyagoubi-Benhammou, N.; Jurado, V.; Dupont, J.; Lacoste, S.; Djebbah, F.; Ounadjela, F.Z.; Benaissa, S.; Habi, S.; Abdelouahid, D.E.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2018. Antimicrobial activities of culturable microorganisms (Actinomycetes and fungi) isolated from Chaabe Cave, Algeria. International Journal of Speleology 47: 189 – 199.

de la Torre Noetzel R; Miller AZ; De la Rosa JM; Pacelli C; Onofri S; García Sancho L; Cubero B; Lorek A; Wolter D; de Vera JP. 2018. Cellular Responses of the Lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-Like Conditions. Frontiers in Microbiology 9

Miguel Ángel Rogerio-Candelera; Primitiva Bueno Ramírez; Rodrigo de Balbín-Behrmann; M. Isabel Dias; Leonardo García Sanjuán; Mathilda Larsson Coutinho; José Antonio Lozano Rodríguez; Ana Z. Miller; A… 2018. Landmark of the past in the Antequera megalithic landscape: A multi-disciplinary approach to the Matacabras rock art shelter. Journal of Archaeological Science 95: 76 – 93.

Sergio Sanchez-Moral; Juan Carlos Cañaveras; David Benavente; Angel Fernandez-Cortes; Soledad Cuezva; Javier Elez; Valme Jurado; Miguel Angel Rogerio-Candelera; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez. 2018. A study on the state of conservation of the Roman Necropolis of Carmona (Sevilla, Spain). Journal of Cultural Heritage 34: 185 – 197.

Gonzalez-Pimentel, J.L.; Miller, A.Z.; Jurado, V.; Laiz, L.; Pereira, M.F.C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2018. Yellow coloured mats from lava tubes of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain) are dominated by metabolically active Actinobacteria. Scientific Reports 8.

Miller, A.Z.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.M.; Martin-Sanchez, P.M.; Costa Pereira, M.F.; Spangenberg, J.E.; Jurado, V.; Dionísio, A.; Afonso, M.J.; Iglésias Chaminé, H.I.; Hermosin, B.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2018. Origin of abundant moonmilk deposits in a subsurface granitic environment. Sedimentology 65: 1482 – 1503.

Dominguez-Moñino, I.; Jurado, V.; Gonzalez-Pimentel, J.L.; Miller, A.Z.; Hermosin, B.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2018. Bacillus onubensis sp. nov., isolated from the air of two Andalusian caves. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 41: 167 – 172.

de la Rosa, J.M.; Rosado, M.; Paneque, M.; Miller, A.Z.; Knicker, H. 2018. Effects of aging under field conditions on biochar structure and composition: Implications for biochar stability in soils. Science of the Total Environment 613-614: 969 – 976.

Marques, J.M.; Etiope, G.; Neves, M.O.; Carreira, P.M.; Rocha, C.; Vance, S.D.; Christensen, L.; Miller, A.Z.; Suzuki, S. 2018. Linking serpentinization, hyperalkaline mineral waters and abiotic methane production in continental peridotites: an integrated hydrogeological-bio-geochemical model from the Cabeço de Vide CH4-rich a… Applied Geochemistry 96: 287 – 301.

De La Rosa, J.M.; Miller, A.Z.; Knicker, H. 2018. Soil-borne fungi challenge the concept of long-term biochemical recalcitrance of pyrochar. Scientific Reports 8.

Jaime Villaverde; Leonila Láiz; Alba Lara-Moreno; J. L. González-Pimentel; Esmeralda Morillo. 2019. Bioaugmentation of PAH-Contaminated Soils With Novel Specific Degrader Strains Isolated From a Contaminated Industrial Site. Effect of Hydroxypropyl-ß-Cyclodextrin as PAH Bioavailability Enhancer. Frontiers in Microbiology 10: 2588

Coutinho, M.L.; Miller, A.Z.; Phillip, A.; Mirão, J.; Dias, L.; Rogerio-Candelera, M.A.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Martin-Sanchez, P.M.; Cerqueira-Alves, L.; Macedo, M.F. 2019. Biodeterioration of majolica glazed tiles by the fungus Devriesia imbrexigena . Construction and Building Materials 212: 49-56.

Díaz-Guardamino, Marta; García Sanjuán, Leonardo; Wheatley, David W.; Lozano Rodríguez, José Antonio; Rogerio Candelera, Miguel Ángel; Krueger,Michal; Krueger, Marta; Hunt Ortiz, Mark; Murillo-Barroso, M. 2019. Rethinking Iberian “warrior” stelae: a multidisciplinary investigation of Mirasiviene and its connection to Setefilla (Lora del Río, Seville, Spain). Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 11: 6111 – 6140.

Garcia-Sanchez, A.M.; Machado-Moreira, B.; Freire, M.; Santos, R.; Monteiro, S.; Dias, D.; Neves, O.; Dionísio, A.; Miller, A.Z. 2019. Characterization of microbial communities associated with ceramic raw materials as potential contributors for the improvement of ceramic rheological properties. Minerals 9:

Gonzalez-Pimentel, Jose L.; Jurado, Valme; Laiz, Leonila; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo. 2019. Draft Genome Sequence of a Granaticin-Producing Strain of Streptomyces parvusIsolated from a Roman Tomb in theNecropolis of Carmona, Spain. Microbiology Resource Announcements 8: 01127-19.

José M. De la Rosa; Águeda M. Sánchez-Martín; Paloma Campos; Ana Z. Miller. 2019. Effect of pyrolysis conditions on the total contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochars produced from organic residues: Assessment of their hazard potential. Science of the Total Environment 667: 578 – 585.

D’Angeli, I.M.; Ghezzi, D.; Leuko, S.; Firrincieli, A.; Parise, M.; Fiorucci, A.; Vigna, B.; Addesso, R.; Baldantoni, D.; Carbone, C.; Miller, A.Z.; Jurado, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; De Waele, J.; Cappell… 2019. Geomicrobiology of a seawater-influenced active sulfuric acid cave. PLoS ONE 14.

Campos, P.; Miller, A.Z.; Prats, Sergio A.; Knicker, Heike; Hagemann, Nikolas; De la Rosa, J.M. 2020. Biochar amendment increases bacterial diversity and vegetation cover in trace element-polluted soils: A long-term field experiment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 150: 1 – 11 .

Jurado, V.; Rosal, Y.d.; Gonzalez-Pimentel, J.L.; Hermosin, B.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2020. Biological control of phototrophic biofilms in a show cave: The case of nerja cave. Applied Sciences (Switzerland) 10.

Martin-Pozas, T.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Cuezva, S.; Jurado, V.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Perez-Lopez, R.; Carrey, R.; Otero, N.; Giesemann, A.; Well, R.; Calaforra, J.M.; Fernandez-Cortes, A. 2020. Biologically mediated release of endogenous N2O and NO2 gases in a hydrothermal, hypoxic subterranean environment. Science of the Total Environment 747:

Campos, P.; Miller, A.Z.; Knicker, H.; Costa-Pereira, M.F.; Merino, A.; De la Rosa, J.M. 2020. Chemical, physical and morphological properties of biochars produced from agricultural residues: Implications for their use as soil amendment. Waste Management 105: 256 – 267.

Ana Z. Miller; Angela M. García-Sánchez; Mathilda L. Coutinho; Manuel F. Costa Pereira; Fernando Gázquez; José M. Calaforra; Paolo Forti; Jesús Martínez-Frías; Theofilos Toulkeridis; Ana T. Caldeira 2020. Colored Microbial Coatings in Show Caves from the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador): First Microbiological Approach. Coatings 20: 1134.

Rosangela Addesso; Alessandro Bellino; Ilenia Maria D’Angeli; Jo De Waele; Ana Zélia Miller; Cristina Carbone; Daniela Baldantoni. 2020. Corrigendum to `Vermiculations from karst caves: The case of Pertosa-Auletta system (Italy). [Catena 182 (2019) 104178](S0341816219303200)(10.1016/j.catena.2019.104178). Catena 185.

Gonzalez-Pimentel, J.L.; Jurado, V.; Hermosin, B.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2020. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Streptomyces Strains, MZ03- 37T and MZ03-48, Isolated from Lava Tube Speleothems. Microbiology Resource Announcements 9:

Pozo-Antonio, J.S.; Sanmartín, P.; Serrano, M.; De la Rosa, J.M.; Miller, A.Z.; Sanjurjo-Sánchez, J. 2020. Impact of wildfire on granite outcrops in archaeological sites surrounded by different types of vegetation. Science of the Total Environment 747.

Miller, A.Z.; De la Rosa, J.M.; Jiménez-Morillo, N.T.; Pereira, M.F.C.; Gonzalez-Perez, J.A.; Knicker, H.; Saiz-Jimenez, C. 2020. Impact of wildfires on subsurface volcanic environments: New insights into speleothem chemistry. Science of the Total Environment 698.

Marta Díaz-Guardamino; Leonardo García-Sanjuán; David Wheatley; José Antonio Lozano-Rodríguez; Miguel Ángel Rogerio-Candelera; Manolo Casado-Ariza. 2020. Late Prehistoric Stelae, Persistent Places and Connected Worlds: A Multi-disciplinary Review of the Evidence at Almargen (Lands of Antequera, Spain). Cambridge Archaeological Journal 30: 69 – 96.

De La Torre Noetzel, R.; Ortega García, M.V.; Miller, A.Z.; Bassy, O.; Granja, C.; Cubero, B.; Jordão, L.; Martínez Frías, J.; Rabbow, E.; Backhaus, T.; Ott, S.; García Sancho, L.; De Vera, J.P.P. 2020. Lichen Vitality after a Space Flight on Board the EXPOSE-R2 Facility Outside the International Space Station: Results of the Biology and Mars Experiment. Astrobiology 20: 583 – 600.

D’Angeli, I.M.; Naylor, L.A.; Lee, M.; Miller, A.Z.; Mylroie, J.; De Waele, J. 2020. Light attenuation as a control for microbiogeomorphic features: Implications for coastal cave speleogenesis. Geomorphology 354:

Tamara Martin-Pozas; Jose Luis Gonzalez-Pimentel; Valme Jurado; Soledad Cuezva; Irene Dominguez-Moñino; Angel Fernandez-Cortes; Juan Carlos Cañaveras; Sergio Sanchez-Moral; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez. 2020. Microbial Activity in Subterranean Ecosystems: Recent Advances. Applied Sciences 10: 8130.

Valme Jurado; Jose Luis Gonzalez-Pimentel; Ana Zelia Miller; Bernardo Hermosin; Ilenia M. D’Angeli; Paola Tognini; Jo De Waele; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez. 2020. Microbial Communities in Vermiculation Deposits from an Alpine Cave. Frontiers in Earth Sciences 8: 586248.

Research Projects (2015-2020)

Geomicrobiología de cuevas europeas. Proyectos Intramurales del CSIC, Ref. 201830E043. Duración: 01/02/2018-31/01/2020.

Prospección en ambientes subterráneos de compuestos bioactivos microbianos con uso potencial para la medicina, agricultura y medio ambiente (Probioma). INTERREG V A ESPAÑA-PORTUGAL (POCTEP), Ref. 0483_PROBIOMA_5_E. Duración: 1/01/2018-30/06/2022.

Estudio de las interacciones microbio-mineral en cuevas volcánicas. Proyectos Intramurales del CSIC, Ref. 201730E093. Duración: 01/12/2017-30/11/2018.

Espeleogénesis por ácido sulfúrico: mineralogía, geoquímica y microbiología de cuevas ácidas de Italia. Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Ref. CGL2016-75590-P. Duración: 30/12/2016-29/12/2020.

Geomicrobiología de cuevas ácidas. Proyectos Intramurales del CSIC, Ref. 201630E076. Duración: 01/08/2016-31/07/2018.

Understanding the nature and origin of black deposits in caves: new insights on enimatic microorganisms and secondary minerals valuable for astrobiology. Comisión Europea (Marie Curie Actions), Ref. 328689. Duración: 01/03/2014-29/02/2016.

Cuevas volcánicas de las Islas Canarias: geoquímica, geomicrobiología y biomineralización. Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Ref. CGL2013-41674-P. Duración: 01/01/2014-31/12/2017.

Biodiversidad y ecología de bacterias en cuevas, minas y otros ambientes subterráneos. Proyectos Intramurales del CSIC, Ref. 201230E125. Duración: 15/11/2012-14/05/2016.

Diffusion of nanotechnolgy based devices for water treatment and recycling. Comisión Europea (European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument), Ref. I-B/2.1/049. Duración: 14/04/2012-13/04/2015.

Red de Ciencia y Tecnología para la Conservación del Patrimonio. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Ref. HAR2010-11432-E. Duración: 01/03/2011-28/02/2015.

Contracts (2015-2020)

Estudio de las comunidades microbianas responsables de las manchas verdes que cubren el área de la cueva denominada Panel de las Superposiciones o Panel de Polícromos. Gobierno de Cantabria. Duración: 13/11/2020-12/11/2021.

Caracterización y estudio molecular de las comunidades procariotas de la Cueva de Nerja. Fundación Cueva de Nerja. Duración: 01/07/2019-30/06/2020.

Estudio molecular de dos áreas de crecimiento de microorganismos fototróficos y posibles agentes de su inhibición. Fundación Cueva de Nerja. Duración: 01/06/2018-31/05/2019.

Conservación y restauración del Retablo de Don Fadrique de Portugal, el Retablo de Santa Librada, la Portada del Jaspe y la Portada de acceso a la Sacristía de Santa Librada en la Catedral de Sigüenza (Guadalajara). Ágora, S.L. Duración: 10/05/2017-09/11/2017.

Aerobiología de la Cueva de Nerja. Investigación de los hongos presentes en el aire. Fundación Cueva de Nerja. Duración: 01/05/2016-30/04/2017.

Estudio de conservación de la iglesia de Santa María la Blanca, de Sevilla. Investigación de los organismos implicados en el biodeterioro. Agora, S.L. Duración: 01/06/2015-01/12/2015.

Conducting microbiological analyses on samples collected by the Laboratory in the Leye’s Cave. Université de Bordeaux. Duración: 26/03/2015-25/09/2015.

Estudio de la contaminación microbiológica de la Cueva de La Garma. Sociedad Regional de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, S.L. (Cantabria). Duración: 16/02/2015-25/06/2017.

Estudio microbiológico de la Cueva de Nerja. Fundación Cueva de Nerja. Duración: 24/01/2014-23/01/2015.